What Factors Affect Birth Rates and Fertility Rates
Key factors affecting a country's average birth rate and TFR are the following:
Rates tend to be higher in developing countries (especially in rural areas, where children begin working to help raise crops at an early age).
People living in urban areas:
- usually have better access to family planning services
- tend to have fewer children than those living in rural areas where children are needed to perform essential tasks.
Rates tend to be lower in developed countries, where raising children is much more costly because children don't enter the labor force until their late teens or early twenties.
TFRs tend to be low when women have access to education and paid employment outside the home.
In developing countries, women with no education generally have two more children than women with a secondary school education.
In areas with low infant mortality rates, people tend to have less children because fewer children die at an early age.
Women normally have fewer children when their average age at marriage is 25 or older.
Pensions eliminate parent's need to have many children to help support them in old age.
According to the UN and the World Bank, an estimated 26 million legal abortions and 20 million illegal (and often unsafe) abortions are performed worldwide each year among the roughly 190 million pregnancies per year.
Typical effectiveness rates of birth control methods in the US:
In some countries, these factors favor large families and strongly oppose abortion and some forms of birth control.