Beech–Maple and
orthern Hardwood Forests
(northern regions)


  • Some ecologists consider it a transitional forest because it contains species common to both the mixed mesophytic forest community to the south and the Boreal forest community to the north.


  • Common key indicator tree and shrub species in the Northern Hardwood Forest:
    • Sugar maple
    • yellow birch
    • American beech
    • White Ash


  • Most of the Northern Hardwood Forest is not virgin forest, it is re-growth following centuries of commercial timber harvesting and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes.